Data for this study were collected using both mail and web surveys March 22 through April 11, 2023. A total of 5,469 surveys were collected, primarily using the Gallup Panel. Supplemental responses were collected through a third-party opt-in sample provider.
The Gallup Panel and opt-in samples were weighted independently and then combined using composite weighting procedures. Post-stratification weights were then used to match national demographics of gender, age, race, Hispanic ethnicity and education, with cross-classified targets within race.
The adjusted margin of error (adjusted for design effect) for all respondents was ±1.9 percentage points at the 95% confidence level. For the 1,563 Black or African American respondents the adjusted margin of error was ±4.0 percentage points.
In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of public opinion polls.
Qualitative interviews were conducted between Sept. 7 to Oct. 26, 2023, and included Black adults who live in the greater Los Angeles and Houston metropolitan statistical areas. See the full report for more methodological details.